Green Propulsion Technology


Human Space Flight Mission of India Gaganyaan to be launched in December 2021.

Indian Space Research Organisation has developed a Green Propulsion Technology for Space Flight.

Propulsion Technology

Propulsion literally means to push forward or drive an object forward.

In rockets and airplanes, the principle behind the propulsion is application of Newton’s third law, “for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction”. A Combustion of fuel releases hot exhaust and thus released mass of gas accelerates the engine.

Green Propulsion Technology of ISRO

  • ISRO began the journey of developing Green Propulsion Technology considering the environment and air pollution caused by burning fuels in 2018.
  • ISRO find an alternative to conventional liquid fuel that is an eco-friendly solid propellant Glycidyl Azide polymer GAP as fuel and Ammonium Di-Nitramide as oxidiser in 2018.
  • To test its innovation, ISRO had been carrying out technology demonstration projects which demonstrates the use of green propellant.
  • The combinations include Liquid Oxygen, kerosene, Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycerol-water and Methanol-water.
  • ISRO has already started using Green Propulsion Technologies in its mission.

However, the Green Propulsion Technologies are used only in part of the mission. For Example, the Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen, combination of propulsion is already used in the Cryogenic Engines of upper stages of GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle. (India’s Indigenous Cryogenic Engine)

Cryogenic: Very low temperature processes such as air Liquefication

 At high altitude as the air is no longer present as oxidizer that the liquid oxygen (which is obtained by lowering temp to -150 degree centigrade involves the cryogenic process). The rocket avoids solid fuels as the liquid are meant for better control of combustion than solids.

  • ISRO has developed ISORENE.
  • ISORENE is rocket grade version of kerosene.
  • It is an alternative to conventional Hydrazine rocket fuel.
  • ISRO successfully demonstrated the Electric Propulsion system in its South Asia Satellite also known as SAARC satellite that was launched in May 2017.

South Asia Satellite

The South Asian satellite: GSAT-9.

The satellite is brainchild of ISRO, an initiative of India to provide services to SAARC region operated by ISRO.

The satellite serves Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Maldives. Except Pakistan all other regional SAARC members are using its services.

Pakistan was wary of India initiative and stating that its concerns country national security did not participate in the programme.

However, Pakistan was ready to offer monetary and technical support to GSAT-9. However, India rejected the help stating it is not willing to develop the satellite on collaborative basis.

Pakistan has its own space programme under SUPARCO (Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission).




The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)


Recently, the KVIC established the Monpa handmade paper making unit.

About the unit

To increase the commercial productivity of paper produced based on Monpa technique is the purpose of this unit.

Also, the unit will generate employment opportunities in Arunachal Pradesh.

Sunil Kothari Passes Away


Who was he?

Eminent Dance Scholar.

Key Points

He wrote extensively on BharatanatyamKathak and Manipuri dance forms and authored 20 books on Indian classical dances.

  • The fourth highest civilian award, Padma Shri,is conferred upon him in 2001.
  • His work, “Sattriya: Classical Dance of Assam” has special significance with respect to Assam Dance Form.
  • New Directions in Indian Danceand Kuchipudi Indian Classical Dance Art are his notable contributions.

Indian Classical Dances

  • The Indian classical dances have two basic concepts:

    • Tandava(movement and rhythm)
    • Lasya (grace, bhava and rasa).
  • Thethree main components of classical dance are:
    • Natya:the imitation of characters that is the dramatic element of the dance.
    • Nritta:the dance movements in their basic form.
    • Nritya: mudras or gestures that is expressional component.
  • The Natya Shastrawritten by Bharat Muni is unique and composite source for the Indian aestheticians for building the characteristics of the dances.
  • There are 8 classical dances in India:
    • Bharatnatyam (Tamil Nadu)
    • Kathak (North India)
    • Kathakali (Kerala)
    • Mohiniyattam (Kerala)
    • Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh)
    • Odissi (Odisha)
    • Sattriya (Assam)
    • Manipuri (Manipur)

International Cricket Council Awards


The International Cricket Council recently announced the results for different format comprising Men’s T20I (Twenty 20 International), ODI (One Day International) and Test Teams of the decade.

The core factor while determining the team was consistency of the performance of the players over the period of last ten years (Decade).

Key Highlights

  • Captain of ODI: The former Indian Captain MS Dhoni was named as the Captain of ODI.
  • Captain of T20I: MS Dhoni.
  • Skipper of ICC Test team of the Decade: Virat Kohli.
  • In Women T20I Captain of the decade: Australian player Meg Lanning.

Rachael Heyhoe-Flint Award for ICC Female Cricketer of the Decade

Suzie Bates (New Zealand), Meg Lanning (Australia), Ellyse Perry (Australia), Mithali Raj (India), Sarah Taylor (England), Stafanie Taylor (West Indies) are the best overall performer in women’s International.

ICC Women’s ODI Cricketer of the Decade

In the category the best overall performers are Suzie Bates (New Zealand), Jhulan Goswami (India), Meg Lanning (Australia), Ellyse Perry (Australia), Mithali Raj (India), Stafanie Taylor (West Indies).

Mithali Raj (India) is the only indian women cricket player to feature in Rachael Heyhoe-Flint Award for ICC Female Cricketer of the Decade and in ICC Women’s ODI Cricketer of the Decade.



Digital India Awards, 2020


The National Informatics Centre, Chief Minister Secretariat of Bihar and the Disaster Management Department have been jointly awarded Digital India Awards, 2020 in “Pandemic Category”.

Earlier the Digital India Award, 2020 under the “Excellence in Digital Governance” category was won by the Uttar Pradesh Food and Civil Supplies Department. It was selected for its Points of Sale based food distribution, online billing and payment for food grains purchased from farmers, GPS tracking of vehicles transporting food grains.

Key Highlights

Under the Pandemic Category Bihar was selected for its financial assistance to more than 21 lakhs of stranded workers outside Bihar. Through “Bihar Sahayata Mobile App” financial assistance was provided.

Rs 1000 were provided to workers coming from outside to Bihar and also to persons stuck in other states by the Bihar Government. Also financial assistance was provided to the workers of other states, who got stuck in Bihar due to COVID-19. To implement the initiative the Bihar Corona Sahayata Mobile App was used. The workers will have to simply register on the mobile app. The amount will be directly added to their account, once the verification of the workers was complete.

About Digital India Awards

Every year the Digital India Awards are presented by President Ram Nath Kovind. The categories in Digital India Awards are as follows:

  • Innovation in Pandemic:Under this category, the Government entity is felicitated that has developed outstanding and innovative digital solution during the time pandemic in areas such as health, education, travel, communication, etc. to enable the citizens to undertake such  various activities with ease.
  • Excellence in Digital Governance:This category is felicitates the Department of Government that has displayed high level of Intra Department Integration and has comprehensive digital presence. It is awarded to Ministries, States/Union Territories and to Districts separately.
  • Open Data Champion: The ministries and departments that release data in a timely and proactive way are acknowledged in this category. It is also essential that the data released should be in compliance with the National Data sharing and Accessibility Policy.
  • Exemplary Product: The three products are honoured by the Digital India Award that have made their mark in Digital Governance. High degree of configurability, replicability, scalability is to be proved by the product.