National Mathematics Day


On 22nd December every year National Mathematics Day is celebrated to commemorate the birth anniversary of India’s famous mathematician Srinivasa Iyengar Ramanujan.

On 26th February 2012 the former Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh declared December 22 as National Mathematics Day, while he was visiting the Madras University in order to pay tribute to Ramanujan’s achievements and celebrated his 125th birth anniversary. Since then, 22nd December is celebrated as India’s National Mathematics Day.

One of Ramanujan’s most treasured findings was infinite series for Pi; Gave infinite formulas to calculate the digits of Pi.

1729 is Ramanujan’s Hardy Number.



Defence Minister inaugurated the Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test Facility


Defence Minister inaugurated the Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test Facility in Hyderabad’s APJ Abdul Kalam Missile Complex.

It is the 3rd largest HWT Test Facility in the world after USA & Russia.

Only the United States and Russia have similar facilities, according to reports. In general, the differentiating threshold between supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnels is considered as Mach 5. In September this year, a huge technological breakthrough was made by DRDO when it successfully tested its hypersonic technology demonstrator vehicle (HSTDV).

National Start-up Awards 2021


The Department of Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade has been authorised to give these awards. The awards are part of flagship scheme Start-up India.

Eligibility Criteria for Incubators

The Incubator should be an independent entity. It should have promoted at least fifteen start-ups. For at least two years the incubator must be operational.

What is a Start-up Incubator?

Incubator help entrepreneurs grow their business and are non-profit organizations. They are often associated with business and universities schools. The Start-up incubators provide the following services:

  • Help with Business basics
  • Access to bank loans
  • Connections to higher education resources
  • Management team identification
  • Networking Opportunities
  • Help with business etiquette
  • Comprehensive business training programmes

Eligibility Criteria for Accelerators

The Accelerator should be an independent entity. The Accelerator must be operational for at least two years. It should have promoted at least ten start-ups.

What is a start-up Accelerator?

They are also called Seed Accelerators. They are generally integration of student academic & industry R&D that is cohort-based. These are often government funded. A group of students studying through a curriculum to achieve an academic degree and applying practical knowledge to solve Tech driven problems. It includes mentorship and educational components.



FDI in Direct to Home (DTH) broadcasting services 100%


The Union Cabinet recently approved revised guidelines for DTH. This allow 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in DTH. The license period has also been extended to twenty years. Earlier, it was ten years.

What is DTH?

Direct to Home Service.

It is a digital satellite service that provides television broadcasting services through satellite transmissions. The customers are directly connected to the satellites in DTH. On the other hand, in a Cable connection, the cable TV Receiving Centres receive the signals from satellite and transmit to nearby customers through cables.

DTH Market in India

India is the largest DTH market in the world. As of December 2019, there were around 70 million active DTH subscribers in the country. The five major DTH providers in India are Tata Sky, Airtel Digital TV, DD Free Dish, Dish TV, and Sun Direct.



India Lost Retrospective tax case at Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)


India lost retrospective tax legislation arbitration against Vodafone.

Retrospective Taxation

  • It allows a country to pass a rule on taxing certain items, products or servicesand deals and levies taxes on companies from a time or date behind the date on which the tax law is passed.
  • Countries use this route to correct any anomalies in their taxation policiesthat have in the past, enabled companies to take advantage of such gaps.
  • Retrospective Taxation hurts companies that has been involved in Merger or Coalition.
  • In 2012,Indian government’s amended the retrospectively tax code, giving itself the power to go after acquisitions and mergers deals all the way back to 1962 if the underlying asset was in India (This Certainly raises the issues as companies bypass the law by establishing HQ in Foreign Countries).
  • Apart from India, many countries including the UK, the Netherlands, Canada, Belgium, Italy, Australiaand USA have retrospectively taxed companies.

Permanent Court of Arbitration

  • It was established in 1899.
  • Headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Purpose:It is an intergovernmental organization facilitate arbitration and other forms of dispute resolution between States. PCA works in the interest of international community in the field of dispute resolution.
  • Funds:It has a Financial Assistance Fund aims at helping developing countries meet part of the costs involved in international arbitration.

Electoral Bonds


  • The electoral bond schemeallows corporates and citizens to buy monetary instruments from the State Bank of India (SBI) and donate them to political parties, who can redeem them for money.
  • According to the Association for Democratic Reforms, political parties have received a total of 12,452 electoral bonds worth Rs. 6210.39 croretill January 2020.

Electoral Bond

  • Electoral Bond is a financial instrument used to make donations to political parties through official channel.
  • The bonds are issued in multiplesof Rs. 1,000, Rs. 10,000, Rs. 1 lakh, Rs. 10 lakh and Rs. 1 crore and there’s no limit on maximum Amount.
  • State Bank of Indiais authorised to issue and encash these bonds, these bonds are valid for fifteen days from the date of issue.
  • These bonds are redeemable in the designated (Verified) account of a registered political party.
  • Donor’s name is not listedon the bond.
  • For a period of ten days each in the months of January, April, July and October as may be specified by the Central Government the bonds are available for purchase by any person (who is a citizen of India or incorporated or established in India).

Central Information Commission

  • Formation:

In 2005, it was established by the Central Government, under the provisions of the Right to Information Act (2005).

Central Information Commission is not a constitutional body.

  • Composition:

It consists of the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and a number of Central Information Commissioners not exceeding 10 as may be considered necessary.

  • Appointment:
On the recommendation of a committee the Chief Information Commissioner is appointed by the President. The Committee consisting of the Prime Minister as Chairperson, Union Cabinet Minister nominated by the Prime Minister and the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
  • Tenure: The Chief Information Commissioner and an Information Commissioner shall hold office until they attain the age of 65 years or for such a term as prescribed by the Central Government, whichever is earlier.


India’s 42nd Ramsar site Ladakh’s Tso Kar Wetland Complex


Tso Kar Wetland Complex has been recently added as forty-second Ramsar site. In the Union Territory of Ladakh it is the second Ramsar site

About Tso Kar

Tso is a freshwater lake. It is the most important breeding areas of the Black necked Cranes in India.


Tsomoriri is 2nd Ramsar site in UT Ladakh. Included as a Ramsar site in 2002. It is a brackish lake. It is the only breeding ground of the black-necked cranes outside China. These birds are endangered.

Ramsar Convention

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the convention was signed in 1971.