India is to exceed 350 million 5G links by 2026

  • According to a report by Swedish telecom equipment maker Ericsson, India is to exceed 350 million 5G links by 2026. India which is having the ceiling average monthly mobile data traffic per smartphone, is expected to go beyond 350 million 5G subscriptions by 2026, accounting for 27% of all mobile subscriptions in the country, .
  • As per the ‘The Ericsson Mobility Report 2020,’ four out of every ten mobile subscriptions in 2026 will be 5G internationally with 5G subscriptions estimate to reach 3.5 billion. In India , LTE (long term evolution technology) subscriptions are forecasted to encourage from 710 million in 2020 to 820 million in 2026 by which time 3G is expected to phased out. 
  • Based on the reported timeline for range auction for 5G services it is predictable that India could have its primary 5G Connection in 2021, according to Nitin Bansal, chief of network solutions for the market region south east Asia, Oceania plus India, Ericsson.

How telecom companies get spectrum in India?

  • A telecom company that needs to proffer services in some of the 22 telecom circles in India has to get hold of a Unified Access Services (UAS) permit to run that circle.
  • Licenses to the companies are provided by auctions. The Unified Access Services that were introduced in November 2003 is applicable for a period of 20 years, which can be extended by an added 10 years once for each license per circle.
  • Department of Telecommunications (DoT) conducts auctions of licenses intended for electromagnetic scale. India was amongst one of the early adopters of band auctions.



Basin Trials of indigenous-built Aircraft Carrier have been fruitfully conducted at Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL)

  • In a major development, Basin Trials of Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) that got effectively conducted at Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) have marked the entry into the last phase of the ambitious warship building project. Basin Trial is testing of the ship machinery and apparatus in suspended conditions before the sea trials. With successful completion of Basin Trial the IAC has entered the final stage of the project.
  • Moreover the Sea trials are intended to be conducted in the first phase of 2021.
  • Trials were held in the existence of Vice Admiral AK Chawla, Flag Officer Commanding- in-Chief Southern Naval Command and Shri Madhu S Nair, Chairman and Managing Director Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL).
  • All-embracing trials of all the four LM2500 Gas Turbines, Handy Pitch Propellers, Shafting and Main Gear Boxes, along with their integrated control systems, were carried out during these trials. In accumulation to all this, major supporting equipment and systems such as direction-finding gear, deck equipment as well as entire internal communication equipment were also proved during the Harbour trials stage.

Benefits of IAC:

  • The IAC project is also an exemplar of Atmanirbhar Bharat as approximately 75 per cent of its material and equipments on the ship of the IAC are native.
  • Employment generation: 50 Indian manufacturers have been openly involved in this growth which has provided essential employment opportunities to Indian citizens. Approximately 2000 Indians have acknowledged direct employment on the project IAC on a daily base and over 40,000 received indirect employment.



Duare Sarkar outreach programme was launched by Bengal Government

  • In recent times, “Duare Sarkar” outreach programme was launched by Bengal Government. Under the programme, camps are to be structured at local body levels. In cities, the camps are to be organised by corporations and at village level and is to be structured by Gram Panchayats. The Local Bodies will crowd camps between December 1, 2020 to January 30, 2020. Through these camps the State Government is likely to provide the Government Services at the doorstep of the Bengal people.
  • In nutshell, the citizens of Bengal can acquire the benefits of different Government schemes through the camps being formed under the programme. The flagship schemes integrated under the program are Kanyashree, Sikshashree and KhadyaSathi. It also includes additional schemes such as Rupashree, Taposili Bondhu, Akhyashree and MGNREGA. Duare Sarkar means administration at Doorstep.



Senegal football idol Diop died at the age of 42 

  • Former Senegal midfielder Papa Bouba Diop has died at the age of 42 after a long infirmity, Senegal’s football federation said on 29 November, 2020.
  • Diop is best recognized for scoring the captivating goal against defending champion France in the opening game of the 2002 World Cup. He won the 2008 FA Cup with Portsmouth in a club livelihood that included stints at Lens, Fulham, West Ham and Birmingham City.

About Diop:

  • Papa Bouba Diop (28 January 1978 – 29 November 2020) was a Senegalese skilled footballer. His ideal position was defensive midfield however he in addition played as centre back, where he earlier played at Lens. Diop was thought-out a strong and forceful player. His playing approach and capacity were compared to Patrick Vieira. Diop’s second of a total of 11 international goals for Senegal came in a 1–0 beat of then-world champions France in the opening match of the 2002 FIFA World Cup, in Senegal’s first ever match at the FIFA World Cup.He finished as his team’s best scorer of the tournament by means of three goals, having also scored twice against Uruguay. Diop played 63 times for Senegal, scoring 11 goals. During his playing profession in England, Diop was nicknamed “The Wardrobe” for his tallness (he was 6 feet 5 inches (1.96 m) in height).

About Senegal:

  • Capital –          Dakar
  • Currency –      West African Franc

The Avian infection disease was recently discovered at a poultry farm in Hyuga City of Japan

  • Nearly 40,000 chickens in every big ranch are being slaughtered and buried.The existing outbreak that started in September 2020 is considered as the biggest outburst in Japan since 2016. In 2018, Japan faced an outburst of bird flu and 91,000 chicken were then culled.

Avian influenza:

  • It is a highly communicable viral disease that affects birds such as Turkeys, chicken, Guinea poultry. They sporadically infect mammals as well as humans. The Avian influenza virus is classified into two types based on their exterior proteins, to be precise Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase.

Avian influenza in India

  • In September 2019, India was affirmed free from Avian influenza. The position will last only till next outburst. Finally India reported an eruption of Avian influenza in 2017.

Types of Influenza:

  • There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D. Human influenza A and B viruses cause cyclic epidemics of disease (known as the flu season) roughly every winter in the United States. Influenza A viruses are the lone influenza viruses known to cause flu pandemics, i.e., universal epidemics of flu virus.


  • Amongst all the known influenza viruses, H5N1 is thought-out to be highly transmittable. It was the primary Avian influenza virus to communicate a disease to humans. The first infection of H5N1 occurred in 1997 in Hong Kong. H5N1 naturally occurs in waterbirds. It is therefore also sometimes called “Bird flu”. The virus transmits to humans by get in touch with infected bird faeces, secretion from the mouth or eyes, nasal secretions, and so on. Infection cannot be transmitted directly from human to human like corona virus.



The Hornbill Festival

  • The Hornbill Festival, which is known famously among locals as the ‘Festival of Festivals’, is a 10-day yearly cultural fest of Nagaland. The festival showcases the affluent and varied Naga civilization through folk dances, customary music, local cookery, handicraft, art workshops etc. This is the 21st version of this festival is to go digital from December 1 to 5 amid the coronavirus concerns. The start of this festival (December 1) symbols the Nagaland statehood day.
  • The festival is named after the Indian Hornbill Bird. It is a big and multihued forest bird. The festival is named after the bird as it is displayed in tradition of most of the tribals in the state of Nagaland. A considerable aspect of the festival is Naga Morungs.

What are Naga Morungs?

  • The Naga Morungs are also known as Nagas. They are the cultural groups inhabitant to North Western Myanmar and North East India. These groups have like culture and form the bulk of residents in Nagaland and Naga self-administered region. The Naga self-administered region is situated in the Naga Hills of Sagaing area of Myanmar.



World AIDS Day is observed every year on December 1

  • Every year the World AIDS Day is celebrated on December 1. This calendar day is being celebrated since 1988. It is celebrated to create consciousness against the increase of HIV infection. It is one of the 11 authorized Global Public Health campaigns of World Health Organisation.
  • The additional 10 campaigns are as follows: World Blood Donor Day, World Health Day, World Immunization Week, World No Tobacco Day, World Tuberculosis Day, World Malaria day, World antimicrobial awareness week, World Hepatitis Day, World Patient Safety Day, World Chagas Disease Day.
  • Theme of World AIDS Day this year was: Global Solidarity and Shared Responsibility

AIDS awareness week:

  • Every year the last week of November is celebrated as AIDS consciousness week. The first AIDS Awareness Week was notable in 1984 in San Francisco.

AIDS in India:

  • According to the National AIDS Control Organization, approximately 2.14 million people in India live with AIDS as of 2017. India is house to the third largest residents of AIDS infected persons in the world after South Africa and Nigeria as of 2018. In 2016, the occurrence rate of AIDS was at 0.3% in India. This was the 80th highest in the world. India fights the disease through antiretroviral drugs, education and awareness programmes.

Orundoi Scheme:

  • The scheme is to be launched by the Assam government in 29 districts across the state. Through this scheme, the government seeks to give power to women by transferring a lowest amount of Rs.830 each month straightforwardly to the bank accounts of the chosen female head of the household. More than 18 lakh beneficiaries have already been chosen by the government underneath this scheme. This number is predictable to reach 22 lakh after the addition of districts in the Bodoland Territorial Area.
  • The scheme was announced during the state budget 2020-21. It is to be implemented at an annual budget of 2400 crores of Rupees. The scheme is initial of its kind in the country. According to the state government of Assam the scheme will be meet the basic requirement of Health and nutrition of a family. It will hold up the family to buy by 4 kg of pulses worth 200 rupees, medicines worth 400 rupees per month, sugar for 80 Rupees and fruits and vegetables for 150 Rupees.
  • The household owning tractor, four wheelers, fridge or TV are not eligible under the scheme. The amount to the beneficiaries in the scheme is to be directly transferred from the eKuber system of Reserve Bank of India.

Earlier initiatives by Government for local people:

  • For a complete solution to the Bodo matter, the Central Government and the State Government of Assam on 27th January 2020 signed a tripartite accord in the company of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). The Bodo tribal group was demanding a separate state of Bodoland from Assam for several years. The accord was signed in the existence of the Union Home Minister of India, Amit Shah by Joint Secretary of Home Ministry (on behalf of Central Government), Chief Minister of Assam together with the Chief Secretary of Assam (on behalf of Assam Government) and by the leadership of four factions of the NDFB and ABSU.



Parts of Tripura are witnessing violent protest

  • Parts of Tripura are witnessing violent protest lately due to the proposed movement of Bru tribals. Bru or Reang tribe is a native population in the northeast, existing in the states of Tripura, Assam and Mizoram. In Tripura, this tribal community is known as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group. In Mizoram, cultural organisations aim to demand their omission from electoral rolls, forcing the tribe to run away to Tripura. Government also to make certain their permanent settlement in Tripura signed an accord, that is, an agreement between the Centre and the two states this year. All this have sparked protests from Bengalis and Mizo groups in Tripura.

What are the reasons for the Tripura protests?

  • In January 2020, an accord had been signed among the state governments of Tripura and Mizoram, the central government and the Bru representatives. According to this agreement, almost 32000 citizens residing in the camps are to permanently inhabit in the state of Tripura. This agreement has re-ignited the protests among citizens from Mizo groups and the Bengalis in the state of Tripura. According to these people, settling of these migrants enduringly in the state will lead to demographic imbalance, regulation and order problems and will exert force on local resources.

Who are the Brus?

  • The Brus are the Indian Chinese grouping of people residing in the Northeast region, more often than not in the states of Assam, Tripura, and Mizoram. They insist that the Brus should be excluded from the electoral rolls. In Tripura, these tribals are recognised as Particularly vulnerable Tribal Group.

What is the Bru Tribal resettlement plan?

  • According to the concurrence signed in January 2020, the state of Tripura has intended 12 resettlement spots in 6 districts. The central government is to finance 600 crores of rupees for the special expansion projects of the Brus. Every resettled family is to be provided with 1.5 lakh rupees of housing support, 0.03 acres of land for building home and 4 lakh rupees as one-time cash benefit. Apart from these the family unit will also be provided with a complimentary ration and a monthly allowance of 5000 rupees for two years from the date of resettlement. The protests are largely to save the inherited lands being owed to the Brus.



Cat fish of India, Thai Mangur was prohibited

  • The well-known Cat fish of India, Thai Mangur was prohibited as it was harming the home ecosystem.
  • Thai Mangur was banned by the National Green Tribunal as it was disturbing the local ecology and the consumers’ fitness. But the cultivators still support it due to its capacity to feed on anything and survive in hostile conditions. It is having high demand because it is cheaper when compared to other seafood. Recently, thousands of tons of this banned catfish (Thai Mangur) were set up to be illegitimately kept for breeding in over 125 artificial ponds in rural Thane, Maharashtra.

Why was Thai Mangur banned?

  • In 2000, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) forbidden the cultivation of Thai Mangur principally because the fish poses bullying to other fishes in an ecosystem. According to a study, Thai Mangur is responsible for turn down of native fish type up to 70% in India.  Also, the fish in certain states of India such as Maharashtra is actually being bred in inappropriate or germ-infested conditions posing health risks to the consumers. Therefore, the National Green Tribunal has expelled the cultivation of Thai Mangur as it began to cause fear to the people and environment.