National Centre for Divyang Empowerment


The National Centre for Divyang Empowerment (NCDE) was recognised by the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) to re-skill and assimilate Divyang fighters of the force suffering from infirmity that happened in line of duty. The Centre is situated at the CRPF Group Centre Rangareddy, Telangana. It is furnished with outstanding facilities as per the requirements of the Divyangs.

Important Features

The National Centre for Divyang Empowerment is primary of its type. In order to empower the Divyangs, numerous market driven skill such as sports aids and computer expertise will be taught to Divyang Fighters. The resourcefulness will allow them to assist the nation despite their infirmities. It will allow the skilling of these people for countrywide and global para sports occasions. It also reskills them with occupational training and Info Technology course to permit them to back to the organisation and defend their self-importance and dignity.

Divyangs in India

Conferring to Census 2011, around 2.68 crores of individuals are disabled. Of this, 69% of the incapacitated people live in rural parts.

Laws for Disabled in India

India established Right of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 to progress the life of the disabled people in the country. The act augmented the quantum of reservation of persons suffering from frailties from 3% to 4% in government works. The teenager between the age of 6 and 18 will have the right to free education. The act set up separate nationwide and state-owned funds to make financial support to people with infirmities.

Packages for Divyangs in India

The DeenDayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme was propelled to deliver services to persons with infirmities. The services include career training centres, special institutes, community-based help centres, etc.

National Fellowship for scholars with Disabilities: Under the arrangement, 200 students with disabilities are delivered with grants.

Accessible India Campaign was started to attain universal approachability to enable people with disabilities to live self-reliantly. The drive aims to enhance transportation system, build surroundings that is feasible to the incapacitated people.



Sustainable Mountain Development Summit


The ninth version of the Sustainable Mountain Development Summit (SMDS) begun on December 12 in Dehradun. This year, the summit took place under the following theme: Emerging Pathways for Building Resilient Post COVID-19 Mountain Economy, Adoption, Innovation and Acceleration.

The emphasis will be on the complete objective of taking actions to guarantee robust and supportable mountain economy for the post COVID-19 world and to fight climate variation. The happening was joined by Uttarakhand Chief Minister Trivendra Singh Rawat and Meghalaya Chief Minister Conard K Sangma.

About the Summit

The summit was organised by Indian Mountain Initiative and was intended to deliberate on matters such as marine security, migration, environment resilience and innovative explanations for disaster risk lessening and farm segment in the Indian Himalayas. The primary edition of the summit meeting was hurled in 2011 in Nainital.

Mountain Ecosystems in India and their implication

Himalayas are the chief mountain bionetwork in India being one of the thirty-six world biodiversity hotspots. The report International Centre for Unified Mountain Development says that the region surrounding Hindu Kush Himalayas holds more than 240 million people. It also says that more than 1.9 billion people depend on the Hindukush Himalayan area for nutrition, water and energy. The area is also called “The Third Pole” as it stores more snow and ice as equated to any other area in the world.  Above all, more than 25% of world people are directly or indirectly reliant on Hindukush Himalayan area. Hence, it is important to save these mountains.

Third pole and climate change

Climate Variation has become a key concern to the third pole as it has directly impacted the river basins. This has in turn impacted the welfare of millions of persons. The rate of warming in the third pole region is higher than the intercontinental average.

International Climate Ambition Summit


On December 12, 2020, the Paris Climate Agreement completed its fifth anniversary. Paris Agreement goals to bound the rise in global warming temperatures well under two degrees Celsius, a mark the world is yet to attain. To remember the time, the United Kingdom had called for a Global Climate Summit also termed as International Climate Ambition Summit.

The International Climate Action Summit was managed and co-hosted by United Nations, United Kingdom and France, in collaboration with Chile and Italy. The summit aimed to highlight the achievements of countries, cities, business towards net zero carbon emission and enhancing the climate finance. The summit is antecedent to 26th COP planned to be held at Glasgow in 2021. The participant countries presented a thorough discussion of NDCs, long term plans to accomplish zero emission and adjustment plans and strategies.

Rendering to the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Europe has 22% of emissions, US has 25% of all emissions, China has 13% and India has only 3% of the emissions of the world.

Global Climate Ambition Summit

The summit highlighted United Kingdom, India, Canada, Japan, China, South Korea and European Union. Australia, the supporter of fossil fuels has been set aside of the summit. The other notable nonappearances were Brazil, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Poland and Turkey. The United States did not appear at the summit as President Trump marched out of the Paris Agreement.

The United Nations Environment Programme recently out the Emissions Gap Report, 2020. The report providing the review of variance flanked by where the Greenhouse gas emissions are projected to be in 2030 and where they should be to avert calamitous climate change events.

Key Conclusions of Emissions Gap Report

The world will face a temperature rise of three degree Celsius by the close of this era. The COVID-19 crisis has reduced the release levels. Still, it is only for a very short period of time and is not an enduring solution to the stand against climate variation.

The Greenhouse Gas emissions have augmented by 1.4% since 2010. However, in 2019, it augmented by 2.6% due to growing in forest fires.

Way Forward

The report advises “Green Pandemic Recovery”. This is to be attained by growing net-zero emission obligations. Similarly, the energy part should be entirely decarbonised. Further energy resolutions based on renewable energy should be implemented. The coal-based power floras should fully be phased out.



Mushtaq Ali Trophy competition to commence on January 10


More than a week after seeking the State association’s opinion on organising a truncated local season, the BCCI has well-versed them hat the Syed Mushtaq Ali Twenty20 (SMAT20) Trophy will be played from January 10 to 31.

The BCCI will next seek supplementary advice from the associates on organising any other domestic contests and a conclusion will be taken after the group stage of the Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy.

About Mushtaq Ali trophy

The Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy is a Twenty20 cricket national championship in India, planned by Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), amongst the players from Ranji Trophy. The 2008-09 term was the inaugural period for this trophy. It is so-called after a well-known Indian cricketer, Syed Mushtaq Ali. In June 2016, the BCCI publicized that the championship would be scrapped and substituted with a zonal-based competition.




Kaziranga has become the first national park that can be explored on boats and bicycles


Elephants and jeeps are no longer the lone means of planned transport to call on the rhino in the Kaziranga National Park termed as the finest preserved home of the one horned animal.  The park can now be sightseen by boats while bicycle tracks are also being finalised.

About Kaziranga National park

Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat, Karbi Anglong and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. The sanctuary, which swarms two-thirds of the world’s great one-horned rhinoceroses, is a World Heritage Site. Conferring to the census held in March 2018 which was mutually conducted by the Forest Department of the Government of Assam and some recognized wildlife NGOs, the rhino population in Kaziranga National Park was 2,413.


HAL’s Avionics Div. Assembles first Israeli AESA Radar for Jaguar jets locally


HAL’s Avionics Div, Hyderabad has acknowledged permission for the first AESA Radar (CBU phase) to close-fitting on the Jaguar DARIN III UPG jet. This is the initial AESA radar being fitted on any display place in India. HAL Hyderabad is the creation agency for a total of 54 AESA radars underneath ToT from IAl, Elta Systems, Israel. In a brief ritual held on 20 November 2020, the Clearance Certificate was offered by HV Kumar, RDAQA (Hyd) to Mr Rajeev Kumar, GM (AD).”ELTA ELM-2052 is a Fire Regulator Radar FOR designed for air-to-air superiority/strike assignments, built on fully solid-state Active Electronically Scanning Array AESA tech permitting the radar to reach long recognition ranges and multi-target trailing abilities”

In February 2020, HAL arrived into a contract with IAl for 54 of these under ToT. As part of the TOT, HAL will manufacture Gallium arsenide (GaAs) based junction transistor and receivers which are part of the radar Antenna. ELTA ELM-2052 is also designated for the 83 Tejas MK1A fighter jets.



Unified Development Control and Promotion Regulations


The Unified Development Control and Promotion Regulations (UDCPR) was revealed by the Maharashtra government to strengthen real estate growth in the state. This new-fangled set of guidelines rules the real estate growth. These rules may bring consistency in size of roads, dimensions of rooms etc. This is to surge the standard of reasonable housing developments and expand ease of doing business. It will assist the designers to improve their source organization.

Key Features of the Regulations

The principles forbid the building in the areas between the blue flood line and river bank inside 100 metres of high flood line of natural lakes. The Blue flood line marks once in twenty-five years of flood line. On the other hand, the red flood line symbols once in hundred years of flood line. Flood line is the extreme level to be touched by the flood waters.

The rules state that 10% of any design should be reserved for fun purposes.

The procedures also state that 5% of design up to 10,000 square metres and 10% of layout above 10,000 square metres shall be kept for comforts.

The building of jogging, paths and cycling roads are permissible only at distance of 15 metres away from river banks.

The least road width along buildings that are more than 24 metres tall should be 12 metres. It should be 15 metres if the buildings are 50 metres tall.

High Floor Space Index (FSI) has been projected for sure uses in overfilled and non-congested zones. FSI base of 1.10 for streets less than nine metres wide has been projected and 1.20 for roads more than 30 metres wide has been projected.

The rules also spread over to other provisions such as slum restoration, heritage preservation, transmission of growth rights, etc. The directions will help the extremely jammed Mumbai city and other future metros in the state.



Sherman Anti-trust Act


Lately, the UC FTC (Federal Trade Commission) filed an anti-trust litigation against Facebook under Sherman Anti-trust Act. The social media giant is under the scanner for its acquisition of Instagram and WhatsApp.

Why was the litigation filed against Facebook?

According to the complaint, the activities of Facebook deny customers the benefit of competition. The goal is to roll back anti-competition behaviour of Facebook and reinstate the competition so that novelty can flourish.

About the Sherman Act

The Sherman Act is an anti-trust Act of the USA, approved in 1890. It was a change to avert the creation of dominations in the businesses through use of agreements, schemes and other business does that limit trade. Its key purpose was to encourage healthy race in the US economy.

The charge has been filed under Section 2 of the Sherman Act. Section 2 forbids firms from using anti-competitive ways to uphold domination.

In 2012, Facebook attained Instagram for 1 billion USD and WhatsApp for 19 billion USD. Conferring to the litigation, Facebook limited the access to third party software designer’s admittance to valuable interconnectedness to its platform.


The charge of the FTC is largely factual. Facebook has power cut API access for Twitter video app Vine. Instagram came at a time when users were swapping from desktop computers to smartphones. Users were liking photo-sharing feature of Instagram. This was recognised by Facebook as risk to its domination power. To eradicate the threat, Facebook chose to purchase the application.

Facebook also completed an ineffective effort to buy Snapchat when Snapchat was growing as its potential player. Later Facebook cliched its most widespread features and created “Stories” feature in Instagram. Today Instagram has billion operators and Snapchat has only 250 million operators.

Facebook did the similar with WhatsApp too. WhatsApp conquered the mobile messaging space. It presently has more than 2 billion users.