73rd Indian Army Day celebrated


The Indian Army day is observed every year on 15th January to commemorate the brave soldiers and their sacrifices to protect the nation.

The second Field Marshal of Indian Armed forces Gen K. M. Cariappa has taken the charge of Indian Army on 15th January 1949. He was the successor of Gen Francis Bucher (Last British Commander-in-Chief of Indian Army) and the first Indian Chief of the nation’s army. 

Indian Army was established by the British on 1st April 1895. But the Army Day is celebrated to commemorate the indigenization of the Chief of Staff’s Rank.

Present Chief of Indian Army

Gen M. M. Naravane is the 30th Chief of the Indian Army.




Lumpy Skin Disease


India possesses the world’s highest number of bovine heads, i.e., 303 million. Bovines of the countries are getting affected due to Lumpy Skin Disease. This is the first occasion when the spread of this disease has been noted in the country. The first case of the disease with similar symptoms was registered in August 2019, in Mayurbhanj District of Odisha.


–       The disease is caused when cattle or water buffalo get infected with poxvirus of Lumpy Skin Disease

–       The virus is related to the species with genus Capri pox virus, Sheep pox virus, and Goat Pox virus.


–       Nodules of few centimeters (2 or 3 cm) appear all over the body, particularly around the head, neck, limbs, udder, and genitals.

–       Other symptoms include nasal discharge, fever, and a reduction in milk production.


–       Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) refers to the mortality rate of 10%.

–       Indian farmers are dependent on allied activities of milk production, as the milk production decreases the income of farmer also decreases.

–       Also, marginal farmers (exist in large numbers) cannot afford to lose a cow or buying a new one.

–       Bovine milk is the major and cheapest source of protein.


–       Vectors like mosquitoes, flies and ticks are majorly responsible for the spread of disease

–       Spreading can also be caused due to Saliva and contaminated water & Food.


–       No treatment is available for the disease, only prevention is the most suitable means of control.


–       Movement control

–       Vaccination

–       Slaughter campaigns

–       Management Strategies

–       Social distancing of animals

Diverse Harvest Festivals in India


Makar Sankranti (Uttarayan), Lohri, Pongal, Bihu, Makaravillaku, etc. are the harvesting festivals that prevail in India in the month of January every year.

Makar Sankranti

–       The day is observed as the Sun travels on its celestial path into the zodiac sign of Makara (Capricorn).

–       The day is also important as the six-month auspicious period of Hindusim called Uttarayan starts from the day. Uttarayan denoted the northward movement of the sun.

–       North Indians Hindus and Sikhs mark the day as Lohri, Sukarat is celebrated in Central India.


–       As referred above, the day is primarily celebrated by the North Indian Hindus & Sikhs.

–       It is traditionally considered as the end of winters and commencement of the journey of the Sun to the northern hemisphere.

–       The celebration is observed a night before the night of Makar Sankranti.

–       Puja Parikrama is observed on the day when a tradition of revolving around the bonfire is exercised along with the distribution of Prasad.

–       It is termed the farmer’s harvest festival.


–       The word literally means overflow or boiling over.

–       The day is majorly observed in Tamil Nadu and the other South Indian States.

–       The day is observed in the month of Thai, as the primary crops like rice are harvested in the fields.

–       People represent their gratitude to their god and the generosity of land.

Bihu (Rongali/Magh)

–       It is widely celebrated as the harvesting festivals of Assam and adjoining states of the North Eastern Region.

–       The day marks the commencement of Assamese New Year.

–       Bihu is considered as old as the river Brahmaputra.

–       It is believed that the tradition started when the tiling of land by the people was started.


–       It is celebrated in Sabarimala at the sacred grove of Lord Ayyappa.

–       It is an annual festival that lasts for 7 days and ends with the ritual called Guruthi.

–       The highlight of the festival is the occurrence of a celestial star on top of Kantamala Hills. The celestial star is known as Makarajyothi.




COVID-19 Vaccine: How and Who will get?


Union Ministry of Health has sent a factsheet to all the states and immunization officers for both vaccines, Covaxin & Covishield that will be used during the world’s largest vaccination drive scheduled to start from 16th Jan. This will be the first phase of the drive in which 3 crore people (a priority group) will get the vaccine.


–   Possess Information related to handling, injecting, and storage of the vaccination.

–   It has been provided to immunization officers, program managers, cold chain managers, vaccinators, etc.

General Guidelines

–   People above 18 years are only eligible for the vaccination

–   Both doses of the vaccines should be the same. (For e.g. The first dose is of Covaxin then the second one should be of Covaxin, not of Covishield.)

–   Persons with platelet disorder, clotting factor deficiency, etc. should be given the vaccine cautiously.

–   The vaccine should be kept within the temperature range of+2 deg to +8 deg Celsius.

–   If found frozen, the dose should be discarded.

–   Pregnant or Lactating Women are not eligible for the vaccination. (As they are not a part of trials).

Status of other countries who have started vaccination programs

–   So far, vaccines have been considered safe.

–   Anaphylaxis has been noted in a small section (It is a severe after vaccination allergic reaction). However, the reaction rate is although very less. Pfizer-BioNtech- 11.1 cases per million doses after.

Moderna m-RNA Vaccine- 1 case in 2,24,322 doses.

Ministry of Home Affairs seeks voter data

–   Ministry of Home Affairs has asked for the voter’s data to Election Commission (EC).

–   According to the Ministry, to identify the age group the data is necessary so that the first phase of vaccination can be done easily.

–   The commission has asked for the specific data required by the ministry.

–   The commission has also started working to make a format to share the data so that elector privacy can be protected.

NCERT’s re-editing


NCERT is currently conducting a drive to revise textbooks by the year 2024.

Various recommendations have been provided to change the syllabus of higher education and its alienation from the school syllabus.

Thus, Educationists and Right-wing organization have represented their presentation in front of the Parliamentary Standing committee on Education. The meeting was conducted on textbook reforms.

Meeting was conducted to-

–   Remove distortions about freedom fighters and un-historical facts.

–   Proportionate references to all period of Indian History.

–   To highlight the role of unsung heroes and participation of women freedom fighters in the freedom struggle.




New Envoy to Portugal


IFS Manish Chauhan is selected as the new Envoy of India to Portugal by the Indian Government.

At present Mr. Manish is working with the United Nations Economic & Social Division under the Ministry of External Affairs.

India Portugal Relations in recent years

–   In the last 15 years the bilateral relations between the two countries have gradually progressed.

–   Portugal is an important nation in Southern Europe.

–   India also getting support from Portugal for United Nations Security Council’s Permanent Member.

–   Various agreements on maritime security, maritime transport, food safety, defence sector, shipping, etc., have been signed between India and Portugal during the visit of Portuguese President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.

India and Portugal relations in the initial period after the independence

–   The diplomatic relations of India & Portugal began in the year 1949.

–   Portugal has refused to surrender Goa, Daman & Diu, and Dadra & Nagar Haveli.

–   This is why the relations between both nations were completely cut off in the mid-1950s.

–   Indian Military conducted Operation Vijay to liberalize the Portugal governed territory along with the Indian states.