India Kazakhstan Relation Analysis


Recently, the Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh conducted bilateral talks with the Defence Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan Lt Gen Yermekbyev in New Delhi.

The two Ministers had last talked on the sidelines of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Defence Ministers’ meeting which was held in Moscow (Russia) in September 2020.

Historical Relations between India and Kazakh:

India and Kazakhstan share a rich and consolidated cultural relation which is ancient and historical going back to more than 2000 years.

There has been a constant trade in goods and, more importantly, exchange of ideas and cultural influences.

Political Relations:

After the disintegration from USSR, India was one of the first countries to recognize the independence of Kazakhstan.

Both the countries established their Diplomatic relations in February 1992.

Both nations are strategic partners of each other since 2009.

Cooperation at Multilateral Fora:

India and Kazakhstan actively cooperate and support each other on numerous multilateral platforms like CICA, SCO, and the UN organizations.

India is a consistent supporter of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), Kazakhstan initiative, and is actively participating in the process.

On the other hand, Kazakhstan is constantly supporting India’s bid to become the permanent membership of an expanded United Nations Security Council (UNSC).

The central Asian nation also has extended its support for non-permanent membership of India in 2021-22.

Trade and Economy:

A major breakthrough in a trade relationship can be traced back to 1993 when both nations established The India-Kazakhstan Inter-Governmental Commission (IGC), an apex bilateral institutional mechanism for developing trade, economic, industrial, and cultural scientific, technological, cooperation between the two countries.

The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas and Ministry of Energy on the Kazakh side are the nodal ministries of India and Kazakhstan respectively with respective Ministers as the Co-Chair of the Commission.

Both nations are also involved in Counter-Terrorism, Trade & Economic Cooperation, Defence & Military-Technical Cooperation, Information Technology, Hydrocarbons, Textiles, Tea Debt and Space Cooperation, Health and Transport, Connectivity & Logistics by establishing Several Joint Working Groups (JWGs) to take forward bilateral relations in the respective spheres.

According to the records of the Ministry of External Affairs, Kazakhstan is India’s largest trade and investment partner in Central Asia.

Space Cooperation:

During the record flight in which India sent 103 satellites in one launch in 2017, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) launched “Al-Farabi-1”, a 1.7 kg Technology Demonstrator Nano Satellite. The satellite was built by Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty.

A delegation of ISRO officials attended Kazakh Defence Expo ‘KADEX’ in May 2018.

Civil Nuclear Cooperation:

Kazakhstan supports Indian membership of Nuclear Supplier Groups and also supported India’s efforts of 2008 in obtaining India-specific exemption to allow civil nuclear cooperation with Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) countries.

Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC):

India assists Kazakhstan in capacity building in various specialized fields under the ITEC program. The program sponsored by the Ministry of External Affairs.


Both the nation shares an agreement on visa free entry for Diplomatic and Official Passport holders.

Even, Since February 2018, Indian has extended the e-visa facility to Kazakh citizens.

On the other hand, with effect from 1st January 2019, Kazakhstan has also introduced electronic visa facilities for travelers from India.

Way Forward

Kazakhstan is a strategically important country for India as it is being a part of central Asia.

India can use its instrument of economic leverages more efficiently to build closer ties with Central Asia, especially with Kazakhstan.

Ultimately, a more consolidated and friendly India-Kazakhstan relationship allows New Delhi to bypass never easy Pakistan and the highly unstable Afghanistan to reach a resource-rich Nur-Sultan (the new name of Kazakh capital Astana), complementing India’s developing economy.

Recently, Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom (UK) witnessed the worst violence in years


Historical Conflict:

Northern Island is geographically a part of Ireland. But politically, it comes under the jurisdiction of the United Kingdom.

After centuries of colonization, Ireland, long ruled by the UK, was set free or got independence about 100 years ago and an uneasy union. 26 of its 32 counties became independent, except 6 counties in the north, which have a Protestant majority, stayed British.

Religious discrimination: Northern Ireland’s Catholic minority experienced discrimination in the Protestant-run state.

In the 1960s, a Catholic civil rights movement demanded change, but the movement had seen a harsh response from the government and police.

In 1969 the British Army was called in the territory, initially to keep the peace.

The situation worsened as the conflict emerged between Irish republican militants who wanted to unite with the south, loyalist paramilitaries who sought to keep Northern Ireland British, and UK troops.

During three decades of conflict, more than 3,600 people have lost their lives in bombings and shootings. The majority of them were innocent civilians. Most were in Northern Ireland, though the Irish Republican Army also set off bombs in London and other British cities.

Ending the Conflict:

By the 1990s, a peace deal was concluded after secret talks and with the help of diplomatic efforts by Ireland, Britain, and the United States.

After the 1998 Good Friday accord, the paramilitaries lay down their arms, and a Catholic-Protestant power-sharing government was established for Northern Ireland.

North Ireland would remain British as long as that was the majority’s wish, but chances of a future referendum on reunification were not ruled out.

While the peace has largely endured, small occasions in which Irish Republican Army splinter groups have mounted on security forces, and there have been outbreaks of sectarian street violence.

The power-sharing arrangement has had periods of success and failure and still, the government is not trusted by both sides.

Problem Child of Brexit:

Northern Ireland has been called the “problem child” of Brexit, the UK’s divorce from the European Union (EU).

As the only part of the UK that has a border with an EU nation, Ireland, it was the trickiest issue to resolve after Britain voted narrowly in 2016 to leave the 27-nation bloc.

An open Irish border, over which people and goods flow freely, underpins the peace process, allowing people in Northern Ireland to feel at home in both Ireland and the UK.

The insistence of Britain’s government on a “hard Brexit” that took the country out of the EU’s economic order meant the creation of new barriers and checks on trade.

Both Britain and the EU agreed that the border could not be in Ireland because of the risk that would pose to the peace process. The alternative was to put it, metaphorically, in the Irish Sea between Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK.

That arrangement has alarmed British unionists, who say it weakens Northern Ireland’s place in the UK and could bolster calls for Irish reunification.

Reason for Current Violence:

Brexit and Corona:

Britain left the EU on 31st December and the new trade arrangements quickly became an irritant to Northern Ireland unionists who want to stay in the UK.

Early trade glitches, exacerbated by the coronavirus pandemic, led to some empty supermarket shelves, fueling alarm.

There was anger that British Prime Minister long insisted there would be no new checks on trade as a result of Brexit, had downplayed the scale of the changes wrought by leaving the EU.

Identity Crisis:

Some in Northern Ireland’s British loyalist community feel as if their identity is under threat. And many other loyalists believe that, de facto, Northern Ireland has ceased to be as much a part of the UK as it was.


Hindustan Aeronautics Limited won National Award for Innovation Training Practices


Bengaluru headquartered Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, a public sector undertaking (PSU) has won the National Award for Innovation Training Practices for the year 2019-20 during the 30th National Award Ceremony.

Th award ceremony was organised by the Indian Society for Training and Development in New Delhi.

HAL was chosen for the award to recognise its efforts to achieve excellence in training and development.




China opened 5G Signal Base Highest Radar Station of the World


Ganabala Radar Station is the World’s Highest Radar Station (a 5G signal based station).

It was recently opened by China.

The station is situated at More than 5300 metres above seal level, in the autonomous Tibet region of China.

Himalayan based Stable high speed 5G connectivity can be accessed by the soldiers of China’s People Liberation Army.

Chinese Army has constructed this station near to the border of India and Bhutan.

Important Passes near the Indo-Chin-Bhutan tri junction:

Nathu La Pass – Sikkim and Tibet

Jelep La Pass – Sikkim with Tibet