India CEO Forum- For Climate Change Issues


On 5 November 2020, Union Minister of Environment, Prakash Javadekar, virtually chairing the ‘India CEO Forum of Climate Change’, said that climate change is an important issue that world leaders need to address.

In his keynote address, the Union Minister said that all countries need to work together to save the planet and take necessary action on climate change. During the meeting, he also highlighted India’s corporate world initiative to follow and declare its plans for carbon neutrality. Besides, a declaration on climate change was also signed by the industry sector.

Highlighting India’s climate change plans:

  • The Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar, while addressing the conference, underscored India’s climate change plans and proposed that the business sector should spread its plans and report to the government to share them further.
  • Told that India has already taken a range of steps to minimise carbon emissions by emphasising on clean energies and increasing the green coverage.
  • Javadekar also underscored India’s ambitious goal of generating 450 gigawatts of clean energy by 2030.
  • He found out that India’s per capita carbon emissions are very low and that the country has produced even less relative to developing nations.
  • During the conference, the Minister also told that India had declared a nationally determined commitment to the reduction of carbon emissions under the Paris Agreement. Accordingly, India will reduce its pollution intensity by 35% and will have 100 GW of solar power as well as 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022.
  • He also encouraged world leaders to meet with the Paris Climate Agreement as well as asked developing countries to include climate-friendly technologies at an acceptable rate.



No shift in the LAC to be accepted by India


Indian Chief of Defense Staff, General Bipin Rawat, reported on Friday, 6th November that the condition at the Line of Actual Control in East Ladakh remained tense and also that the prospect of a war with China could not be excluded out.

His comment came in the centre of the continuing military talk between India and China in Chushul on Friday. He spoke at the Diamond Jubilee Webinar, 2020 hosted by the National Defense College in Delhi.

However, the CDS have pointed out that India’s positioning is unmistakable and that it “would not accept any change in the Line of Actual Control.”

Relationship between India and China:

Indian and Chinese troops scuffled at Pangong Tso in Ladakh on May 5-6.

After the first round of talks on 6 June 2020, clashes occurred in Galwan Valley, Ladakh, which claimed the lives of 20 Indian soldiers and an undisclosed number of Chinese casualties.

Although the LAC continues to face offs and standoffs owing to variations in understanding of alignment, there has been no LAC fire since 1975.

In 1962, India and China fought the battle.

India also pushed around the LAC in additional units, tanks and artillery to balance Chinese deployments.

Besides, India has authorized the procurement of 33 Russian fighter jets and improvements to 59 war planes for Rs. 18,148 crores.

Himalayan atmosphere witnesses Brown Carbon Tarballs


A study has shown that brown carbon ‘tarballs’ which fasten glacial melting have been identified in the Himalayan environment.

What’s the Brown Carbon ‘Tarballs?’ 

Tarballs being small, light-absorbing, carbon-based particles produced by the combustion of biomass or fossil fuels deposited on snow and ice.

They are made of brown gas, which is produced through the combustion of fossil fuels.

The median dimensions of actively blended tarballs and locally mixed tarballs became 213 and 348 nanometres, respectively.

The primary brown carbon (BrC) co-emitted alongside black carbon (BC) from biomass burning is an effective light-absorbing carbon aerosol.

Black carbon from the Indo-Gangetic Plain will enter the Himalayas and affect the melting of the ice and climate change.

What’s the Tarballs? How are they formed?

Tarballs being small light-absorbing, carbonaceous particles produced by the combustion of biomass or fossil fuels deposited on snow and ice.

Glacial melt hastened.

They are made of brown gas, which is produced through the combustion of fossil fuels.

Where did they arrive from here?

Tarballs became generated from the burning of biomass in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.


Long-range transport tarballs can be an effective influence in the temperature effect which will have a major impact on glacial melting in the Himalayas.

Highlights of this report:

Until now, long stretches of black carbon are carried by the wind to the Himalayan atmosphere.

The study showed that a dense number of active fire spots — corresponding to large-scale wheat residues on the Indo-Gangetic Plain — had occurred along the Himalayan pathways.

The proportion of tarballs rose in days of elevated levels of emission which could lead to the hastening of glacial melt and global warming.



Radio burst has been spotted by NASA

NASA recently announced that a combination of radio and X-ray signals had been found in Milky Way in April 2020. This has never been seen in the galaxy before. NASA has recorded the spotting of Short Radio Bursts. This has been observed by the CHIME telescope.

Main highlights of this:

In 2007, the Short Radio Bursts were discovered. This is the first-time radio flashes have been spotted in the Milky Way Galaxies. Although the radio bursts were discovered, their point of origin could not be identified.

The first radio burst was detected during the pulsar survey results in 2007. So far, only one radio burst has been repeating itself. It is repeated daily every 16.35 days.

What the heck are Short Radio Bursts?

Fast Radio Bursts are light rays of radio waves emitted by astronomical objects with changing magnetic fields. The length of these pulses only lasts for a millisecond. Owing to the brief length of the incident, it is very difficult to detect Rapid Radio Bursts.



Software Technology Parks of India

The Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) is investing up to 400 crore in the development of an office and networking system across many cities, providing a ‘plug-and-play’ facility to small technology firms.

On the STPI:

  • STPI is an independent company founded in 1991 by the Ministry of Electronics and IT of the Union.
  • Its goal is to ‘encourage, facilitate and enhance the export of software from India.’
  • These parks provide engineering expertise to provide preparation, consultancy and implementation services.



MSME Udyam records 11 Lakh Registration

More than 11 Lakh Micro, Small and Medium Businesses have registered to date with the latest MSME-Udyam Registration online system. The Ministry of MSME updated the concept of small and medium-sized enterprises and the registration process with effect from 1 July this year. This platform is seamlessly incorporated with the CBDT and GST networks as well as the Government e-Marketplace, GeM.

On the Provision:

The Ministry said that 7 Lakh 98 thousand enterprises are held by men’s entrepreneurs, while one Lakh 73 thousand enterprises are owned by female entrepreneurs. It is said that three lakh 72 thousand enterprises reported in the Production segment, while 6 lakh 31 thousand enterprises reported in the service industry. Besides, more than 11 thousand businesses are operated by Divyangjan businessmen.

Fortification of Rice and Its distribution


Fifteen States have been selected for the implementation of the Centrally Funded Pilot Scheme on Rice Fortification and Distribution through PDS (Public Distribution System). The Pilot Scheme has been authorised for three years, starting from 2019-2020, with a cumulative expenditure outlay of Rs.174.6 Crore. 15 The governments of the Member States have established their respective districts for the introduction of the Pilot Scheme.

Key Features:

  • At this review meeting of the current pilot scheme aimed at distributing fortified rice in 15 districts, it was agreed that, to tackle chronic anaemia and undernourishment, the government is introducing policies to deliver fortified rice via the ICDS and Mid-Day Meal Schemes throughout India from 2021, with special emphasis on Aspirational Districts.
  • Rice fortification is intentionally raising the content of important micronutrients, i.e. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food component, which would improve the nutritional consistency of the food supply and offer limited health benefits to the public.
  • Normal milled rice is poor in micronutrients and is mainly used as a source of carbohydrate.
  • The fortification of rice seems to be a significant way to improve nutrition. Fortified rice contains vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B12, folic acid, iron and zinc.
  • Operation for fortification: the amount of only one micronutrient can be increased in a single food (e.g. salt iodisation) or there may be a wide variety of food-micronutrient combinations.
  • FSSAI Regulations, 2016 towards fortifying essentials, namely Wheat Flour as well as Rice, Milk including Edible Oil and Double Fortified Salt, to decrease the heavy burden of micronutrient malnutrition in India, were introduced in October 2016.

Fortified Rice Kernels:

Strengthening rice is achieved by grinding broken rice into dust and combining the material to nutrients, and then forming rice-like kernels using an extrusion process. These reinforced kernels are then combined with normal rice in a ratio of 1:50 to 1:200.

Integrated Child Development Program:

The ICDS was released on 2 October 1975. The Comprehensive Child Development Services Scheme provides a bundle of six services (Supplementary Nutrition, Immunization, Dental Check-up, Pre-school Non-formal Schooling, Nutrition & Health Education, and Referral Services) to children aged 0-6 years, pregnant women and breastfeeding women.



India-Italy Virtual Bilateral Summit 2020

The Bilateral Summit between India and Italy took place basically on 6 November 2020. The summit was participated by Indian Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi and Italian Prime Minister Prof. Giuseppe Conte. The two leaders discussed the broad structure of the bilateral partnership and expressed their determination to improve cooperation against shared global threats, including the Covid-19 pandemic.

A broad variety of topics were covered, including political, fiscal, research and technical, space and security cooperation. 15 MOUs / Agreements were signed at the Summit in different sectors such as energy, fisheries, shipbuilding, construction, etc.



Moto Tunnel opened for Tourists

Pakistan’s Ministry of Climate Change opened the 129-year-old Moto Tunnel for visitors after its restoration in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.


The tunnel is component of a larger walk through the mountains of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan’s Ayubia National Park.


The ‘Moto Tunnel’ constructed by the British. A water pipeline passes through that and was possibly designed to address the water crisis in the neighboring Murree. The signal path of the walk is 4 kilometres from Dunga Gali to Ayubia. The tunnel was built to connect Ayubia to Khaira Gali. As the water piping flows through it as well as the tunnel was used for carrying water, it’s a flat walk through the tunnel.