MEA: Gilgit-Baltistan- a part of India


India considers Gilgit Baltistan the part of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir as it shares a geographical boundary with Pakistan occupied Kashmir but Pakistan consider it the separate from PoK. Pakistan has been planning to accord provincial status to Gilgit-Baltistan. It has announced elections for the legislative Assembly of Gilgit Baltistan to hold in this month. Its Supreme Court has allowed Islamabad to conduct general elections in G-B under the amendment of 2018 administrative order.

India’s action:

India has called it the action of illegally occupying the region as the Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan is an integral part of India.

Importance of the region:

1) China-Pakistan economic corridor passes through this area.

2) Gilgit-Baltistan holds three of the world’s longest glacier outside the polar regions, five of the “eight-thousanders” and more than 50 peaks above 23,000 ft.

3) It borders Afghanistan in the West, China in the north, and Kashmir in the south-east.



“Meri Saheli” initiative by Indian Railways for the safety of woman train passengers

About the initiative:

Railway Protection Force (RPF) has launched the “Meri Saheli” initiative for the safety of women passengers on trains throughout the journey across all zones. A team of young lady RPF personnel will visit all the coaches including ladies coaches for the identification of women passengers with coach number and seat number.

Takeaways of the initiative:

Safety of women passengers by a team formed by Railway Division

Mental peace and comfortable travelling experience

Helpline numbers:

RPF Security Helpline Number- 182

Government Railway Police Security Helpline Number- 1512


The “Meri Saheli” initiative was started as a pilot project in the Southeastern Railway in September 2020. Then it was extended to all zones and Konkan Railway Corporation Limited from 17th October 2020.

It was introduced in two trains by the Western Railway zone and then the Central Railway RPF started this program in 24 trains.


A draft model Act and rules for States by NITI Aayog on conclusive land titling

National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog has released a draft model Act and rules for states on conclusive land titling on October 30, 2020.

Working of Model Act Rules for States and Conclusive Land Titling:

1) The act is to minimise the process of legal actions and ease the land acquisition process.

2) State governments can establish, administer, and manage the title registration of land or of any other immovable properties.

3) It is the rule that the registration of the ownership of land ends without any action after three years of its notification.

4) In case of any dispute, the state gives  guarantee for the correctness of conclusive land titles and compensation.

The procedure of appeal if a person is distressed by an entry in the Record of Titles:

A person may file an objection to the Title Registration Officer within three years from the notification date. Then, the Title Registration Officer will make an entry in the Register of Titles and the Register of Disputes and the case will be referred to the Dispute Resolution Officer.

Within 30 days, the person appeals to the Land Titling Appellate Tribunal on the order of the Land Dispute Resolution Officer. Finally, the High Court deals with the appeal.



Issue of Bulk Drug Park

Himachal Pradesh wants a bulk drug park under a central government scheme that is setting up of three such parks across the country.

What is a bulk drug park?

A bulk drug park, also called as an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient produces the desired pharmacological activity. It is prepared from various reactions that involve solvents and chemicals.

India promoting bulk drug parks:

India is promoting bulk drug parks under the self-reliance scheme because it suffered in the pending due to the disruption in the imports and the dependence on other countries like China.

Key features of the scheme:

Its scheme will support 3 selected parks in the country and it will provide a one-time grant-in-aid for infrastructure facilities. Grant-in-aid will be 90% in the case of Himachal Pradesh and hill states but to 70% otherwise of the cost of the common facilities. One state can only propose one site and the centre will provide a maximum of Rs 1000 crore per park.



Typhoon Goni hit the Philippines

Typhoon Goni has hit the Philippines and caused great damage to life and property.

What is a typhoon?

Typhoon is the tropical storm that takes place in the Northwest Pacific Ocean and is called so. It is also called cyclone in the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean.

Different parts of a cyclone’s structure include:

The eye is a calm space and the centre of the storm.

The eyeball is the most effective part of a cyclone that it is comprised of high wind speeds and causes great damage. It comes up with thunderstorms.

Rainbands are the outer parts of a cyclone when excess rain happens.